A Die-Hard Issue
CIA's Role in the Study of UFOs, 1947-90
Gerald K. Haines
An extraordinary 95 percent of all Americans have at least heard or
read something about Unidentified Flying Objects (UFOs), and 57 percent
believe they are real. (1)
Former US Presidents Carter and Reagan claim to have seen a UFO.
UFOlogists--a neologism for UFO buffs--and private UFO organizations are
found throughout the United States. Many are convinced that the US
Government, and particularly CIA, are engaged in a massive conspiracy
and coverup of the issue. The idea that CIA has secretly concealed its
research into UFOs has been a major theme of UFO buffs since the modern
UFO phenomena emerged in the late 1940s.
In late 1993, after being pressured by UFOlogists for the release of
additional CIA information on UFOs,
(3) DCI R. James Woolsey ordered another review of all Agency
files on UFOs. Using CIA records compiled from that review, this study
traces CIA interest and involvement in the UFO controversy from the late
1940s to 1990. It chronologically examines the Agency's efforts to solve
the mystery of UFOs, its programs that had an impact on UFO sightings,
and its attempts to conceal CIA involvement in the entire UFO issue.
What emerges from this examination is that, while Agency concern over
UFOs was substantial until the early 1950s, CIA has since paid only
limited and peripheral attention to the phenomena.
The emergence in 1947 of the Cold War confrontation between the United
States and the Soviet Union also saw the first wave of UFO sightings.
The first report of a "flying saucer" over the United States came on 24
June 1947, when Kenneth Arnold, a private pilot and reputable
businessman, while looking for a downed plane sighted nine disk-shaped
objects near Mt. Rainier, Washington, traveling at an estimated speed of
over 1,000 mph. Arnold's report was followed
by a flood of additional sightings, including reports from military and
civilian pilots and air traffic controllers all over the United States.
(4) In 1948, Air Force Gen. Nathan Twining,
head of the Air Technical Service Command, established Project SIGN
(initially named Project SAUCER) to collect, collate, evaluate, and
distribute within the government all information relating to such
sightings, on the premise that UFOs might be real and of national
security concern. (5)
The Technical Intelligence Division of the Air Material Command (AMC)
at Wright Field (later Wright-Patterson Air Force Base) in Dayton, Ohio,
assumed control of Project SIGN and began its work on 23 January 1948.
Although at first fearful that the objects might be Soviet secret
weapons, the Air Force soon concluded that UFOs were real but easily
explained and not extraordinary. The Air Force report found that almost
all sightings stemmed from one or more of three causes: mass hysteria
and hallucination, hoax, or misinterpretation of known objects.
Nevertheless, the report recommended continued military intelligence
control over the investigation of all sightings and did not rule out the
possibility of extraterrestrial phenomena.
Amid mounting UFO sightings, the Air Force continued to collect and
evaluate UFO data in the late 1940s under a new project, GRUDGE, which
tried to alleviate public anxiety over UFOs via a public relations
campaign designed to persuade the public that UFOs constituted nothing
unusual or extraordinary. UFO sightings were explained as balloons,
conventional aircraft, planets, meteors, optical illusions, solar
reflections, or even "large hailstones." GRUDGE officials found no
evidence in UFO sightings of advanced foreign weapons design or
development, and they concluded that UFOs did not threaten US security.
They recommended that the project be reduced in scope because the very
existence of Air Force official interest encouraged people to believe in
UFOs and contributed to a "war hysteria" atmosphere. On 27 December
1949, the Air Force announced the project's termination.
With increased Cold War tensions, the Korean war, and continued UFO
sightings, USAF Director of Intelligence Maj. Gen. Charles P. Cabell
ordered a new UFO project in 1952. Project BLUE BOOK became the major
Air Force effort to study the UFO phenomenon throughout the 1950s and
1960s. (8) The task
of identifying and explaining UFOs continued to fall on the Air Material
Command at Wright-Patterson. With a small staff, the Air Technical
Intelligence Center (ATIC) tried to persuade the public that UFOs were
not extraordinary. (9)
Projects SIGN, GRUDGE, and BLUE BOOK set the tone for the official US
Government position regarding UFOs for the next 30 years.
Early CIA Concerns, 1947-52
CIA closely monitored the Air Force effort, aware of the mounting
number of sightings and increasingly concerned that UFOs might pose a
potential security threat.
(10) Given the distribution of the sightings, CIA officials in
1952 questioned whether they might reflect "midsummer madness.''
(11) Agency officials accepted the
Air Force's conclusions about UFO reports, although they concluded
that "since there is a remote possibility that they may be
interplanetary aircraft, it is necessary to investigate each sighting."
A massive buildup of sightings over the United States in 1952,
especially in July, alarmed the Truman administration. On 19 and 20
July, radar scopes at Washington National Airport and Andrews Air Force
Base tracked mysterious blips. On 27 July, the blips reappeared. The Air
Force scrambled interceptor aircraft to investigate, but they found
nothing. The incidents, however, caused headlines across the country.
The White House wanted to know what was happening, and the Air Force
quickly offered the explanation that the radar blips might be the result
of "temperature inversions." Later, a Civil Aeronautics Administration
investigation confirmed that such radar blips were quite common and were
caused by temperature inversions.
Although it had monitored UFO reports for at least three years, CIA
reacted to the new rash of sightings by forming a special study group
within the Office of Scientific Intelligence (OSI) and the Office of
Current Intelligence (OCI) to review the situation.
(14) Edward Tauss, acting chief of OSI's Weapons and Equipment
Division, reported for the group that most UFO sightings could be easily
explained. Nevertheless, he recommended that the Agency continue
monitoring the problem, in coordination with ATIC. He also urged that
CIA conceal its interest from the media and the public, "in view of
their probable alarmist tendencies" to accept such interest as
confirming the existence of UFOs.
Upon receiving the report, Deputy Director for Intelligence (DDI)
Robert Amory, Jr. assigned responsibility for the UFO investigations to
OSI's Physics and Electronics Division, with A. Ray Gordon as the
officer in charge. (16)
Each branch in the division was to contribute to the investigation, and
Gordon was to coordinate closely with ATIC. Amory, who asked the group
to focus on the national security implications of UFOs, was relaying DCI
Walter Bedell Smith's concerns.
(17) Smith wanted to know whether or not the Air Force
investigation of flying saucers was sufficiently objective and how much
more money and manpower would be necessary to determine the cause of the
small percentage of unexplained flying saucers. Smith believed "there
was only one chance in 10,000 that the phenomenon posed a threat to the
security of the country, but even that chance could not be taken."
According to Smith, it was CIA's responsibility by statute to coordinate
the intelligence effort required to solve the problem. Smith also wanted
to know what use could be made of the UFO phenomenon in connection with
US psychological warfare efforts.
Led by Gordon, the CIA Study Group met with Air Force officials at
Wright-Patterson and reviewed their data and findings. The Air Force
claimed that 90 percent of the reported sightings were easily accounted
for. The other 10 percent were characterized as "a number of incredible
reports from credible observers." The Air Force rejected the theories
that the sightings involved US or Soviet secret weapons development or
that they involved "men from Mars"; there was no evidence to support
these concepts. The Air Force briefers sought to explain these UFO
reports as the misinterpretation of known objects or little understood
(19) Air Force and CIA officials agreed that outside knowledge of
Agency interest in UFOs would make the problem more serious.
(20) This concealment of CIA interest contributed greatly to later
charges of a CIA conspiracy and coverup.
The CIA Study Group also searched the Soviet press for UFO reports, but
found none, causing the group to conclude that the absence of reports
had to have been the result of deliberate Soviet Government policy. The
group also envisioned the USSR's possible use of UFOs as a psychological
warfare tool. In addition, they worried that, if the US air warning
system should be deliberately overloaded by UFO sightings, the Soviets
might gain a surprise advantage in any nuclear attack.
Because of the tense Cold War situation and increased Soviet
capabilities, the CIA Study Group saw serious national security concerns
in the flying saucer situation. The group believed that the Soviets
could use UFO reports to touch off mass hysteria and panic in the United
States. The group also believed that the Soviets might use UFO sightings
to overload the US air warning system so that it could not distinguish
real targets from phantom UFOs. H. Marshall Chadwell, Assistant Director
of OSI, added that he considered the problem of such importance "that it
should be brought to the attention of the National Security Council, in
order that a communitywide coordinated effort towards it solution may be
Chadwell briefed DCI Smith on the subject of UFOs in December 1952. He
urged action because he was convinced that "something was going on that
must have immediate attention" and that "sightings of unexplained
objects at great altitudes and traveling at high speeds in the vicinity
of major US defense installations are of such nature that they are not
attributable to natural phenomena or known types of aerial vehicles." He
drafted a memorandum from the DCI to the National Security Council (NSC)
and a proposed NSC Directive establishing the investigation of UFOs as a
priority project throughout the intelligence and the defense research
and development community.
(23) Chadwell also urged Smith to establish an external research
project of top-level scientists to study the problem of UFOs.
(24) After this briefing, Smith directed DDI Amory to prepare a
NSC Intelligence Directive (NSCID) for submission to the NSC on the need
to continue the investigation of UFOs and to coordinate such
investigations with the Air Force.
The Robertson Panel, 1952-53
On 4 December 1952, the Intelligence Advisory Committee (IAC) took up
the issue of UFOs. (26)
Amory, as acting chairman, presented DCI Smith's request to the
committee that it informally discuss the subject of UFOs. Chadwell then
briefly reviewed the situation and the active program of the ATIC
relating to UFOs. The committee agreed that the DCI should "enlist the
services of selected scientists to review and appraise the available
evidence in the light of pertinent scientific theories" and draft an
NSCID on the subject. (27)
Maj. Gen. John A. Samford, Director of Air Force Intelligence, offered
At the same time, Chadwell looked into British efforts in this area. He
learned the British also were active in studying the UFO phenomena. An
eminent British scientist, R. V. Jones, headed a standing committee
created in June 1951 on flying saucers. Jones' and his committee's
conclusions on UFOs were similar to those of Agency officials: the
sightings were not enemy aircraft but misrepresentations of natural
phenomena. The British noted, however, that during a recent air show RAF
pilots and senior military officials had observed a "perfect flying
saucer." Given the press response, according to the officer, Jones was
having a most difficult time trying to correct public opinion regarding
UFOs. The public was convinced they were real.
In January 1953, Chadwell and H. P. Robertson, a noted physicist from
the California Institute of Technology, put together a distinguished
panel of nonmilitary scientists to study the UFO issue. It included
Robertson as chairman; Samuel A. Goudsmit, a nuclear physicist from the
Brookhaven National Laboratories; Luis Alvarez, a high-energy physicist;
Thornton Page, the deputy director of the Johns Hopkins Operations
Research Office and an expert on radar and electronics; and Lloyd
Berkner, a director of the Brookhaven National Laboratories and a
specialist in geophysics.
The charge to the panel was to review the available evidence on UFOs
and to consider the possible dangers of the phenomena to US national
security. The panel met from 14 to 17 January 1953. It reviewed Air
Force data on UFO case histories and, after spending 12 hours studying
the phenomena, declared that reasonable explanations could be suggested
for most, if not all, sightings. For example, after reviewing
motion-picture film taken of a UFO sighting near Tremonton, Utah, on 2
July 1952 and one near Great Falls, Montana, on 15 August 1950, the
panel concluded that the images on the Tremonton film were caused by
sunlight reflecting off seagulls and that the images at Great Falls were
sunlight reflecting off the surface of two Air Force interceptors.
The panel concluded unanimously that there was no evidence of a direct
threat to national security in the UFO sightings. Nor could the panel
find any evidence that the objects sighted might be extraterrestrials.
It did find that continued emphasis on UFO reporting might threaten "the
orderly functioning" of the government by clogging the channels of
communication with irrelevant reports and by inducing "hysterical mass
behavior" harmful to constituted authority. The panel also worried that
potential enemies contemplating an attack on the United States might
exploit the UFO phenomena and use them to disrupt US air defenses.
To meet these problems, the panel recommended that the National
Security Council debunk UFO reports and institute a policy of public
education to reassure the public of the lack of evidence behind UFOs. It
suggested using the mass media, advertising, business clubs, schools,
and even the Disney corporation to get the message across. Reporting at
the height of McCarthyism, the panel also recommended that such private
UFO groups as the Civilian Flying Saucer Investigators in Los Angeles
and the Aerial Phenomena Research Organization in Wisconsin be monitored
for subversive activities.
The Robertson panel's conclusions were strikingly similar to those of
the earlier Air Force project reports on SIGN and GRUDGE and to those of
the CIA's own OSI Study Group. All investigative groups found that UFO
reports indicated no direct threat to national security and no evidence
of visits by extraterrestrials.
Following the Robertson panel findings, the Agency abandoned efforts to
draft an NSCID on UFOs.
(34) The Scientific Advisory Panel on UFOs (the Robertson panel)
submitted its report to the IAC, the Secretary of Defense, the Director
of the Federal Civil Defense Administration, and the Chairman of the
National Security Resources Board. CIA officials said no further
consideration of the subject appeared warranted, although they continued
to monitor sightings in the interest of national security. Philip Strong
and Fred Durant from OSI also briefed the Office of National Estimates
on the findings. (35)
CIA officials wanted knowledge of any Agency interest in the subject of
flying saucers carefully restricted, noting not only that the Robertson
panel report was classified but also that any mention of CIA sponsorship
of the panel was forbidden. This attitude would later cause the Agency
major problems relating to its credibility.
The 1950s: Fading CIA Interest in UFOs
After the report of the Robertson panel, Agency officials put the
entire issue of UFOs on the back burner. In May 1953, Chadwell
transferred chief responsibility for keeping abreast of UFOs to OSI's
Physics and Electronic Division, while the Applied Science Division
continued to provide any necessary support.
(37) Todos M. Odarenko, chief of the Physics and Electronics
Division, did not want to take on the problem, contending that it would
require too much of his division's analytic and clerical time. Given the
findings of the Robertson panel, he proposed to consider the project
"inactive" and to devote only one analyst part-time and a file clerk to
maintain a reference file of the activities of the Air Force and other
agencies on UFOs. Neither the Navy nor the Army showed much interest in
UFOs, according to Odarenko.
A nonbeliever in UFOs, Odarenko sought to have his division relieved of
the responsibility for monitoring UFO reports. In 1955, for example, he
recommended that the entire project be terminated because no new
information concerning UFOs had surfaced. Besides, he argued, his
division was facing a serious budget reduction and could not spare the
Chadwell and other Agency officials, however, continued to worry about
UFOs. Of special concern were overseas reports of UFO sightings and
claims that German engineers held by the Soviets were developing a
"flying saucer" as a future weapon of war.
To most US political and military leaders, the Soviet Union by the
mid-1950s had become a dangerous opponent. Soviet progress in nuclear
weapons and guided missiles was particularly alarming. In the summer of
1949, the USSR had detonated an atomic bomb. In August 1953, only nine
months after the United States tested a hydrogen bomb, the Soviets
detonated one. In the spring of 1953, a top secret RAND Corporation
study also pointed out the vulnerability of SAC bases to a surprise
attack by Soviet long-range bombers. Concern over the danger of a Soviet
attack on the United States continued to grow, and UFO sightings added
to the uneasiness of US policymakers.
Mounting reports of UFOs over eastern Europe and Afghanistan also
prompted concern that the Soviets were making rapid progress in this
area. CIA officials knew that the British and Canadians were already
experimenting with "flying saucers." Project Y was a Canadian-British-US
developmental operation to produce a nonconventional flying-saucer-type
aircraft, and Agency officials feared the Soviets were testing similar
Adding to the concern was a flying saucer sighting by US Senator
Richard Russell and his party while traveling on a train in the USSR in
October 1955. After extensive interviews of Russell and his group,
however, CIA officials concluded that Russell's sighting did not support
the theory that the Soviets had developed saucerlike or unconventional
aircraft. Herbert Scoville, Jr., the Assistant Director of OSI, wrote
that the objects observed probably were normal jet aircraft in a steep
Wilton E. Lexow, head of the CIA's Applied Sciences Division, was also
skeptical. He questioned why the Soviets were continuing to develop
conventional-type aircraft if they had a "flying saucer."
(43) Scoville asked Lexow to assume responsibility for fully
assessing the capabilities and limitations of nonconventional aircraft
and to maintain the OSI central file on the subject of UFOs.
CIA's U-2 and OXCART as UFOs
In November 1954, CIA had entered into the world of high technology
with its U-2 overhead reconnaissance project. Working with Lockheed's
Advanced Development facility in Burbank, California, known as the Skunk
Works, and Kelly Johnson, an eminent aeronautical engineer, the Agency
by August 1955 was testing a high-altitude experimental aircraft--the
U-2. It could fly at 60,000 feet; in the mid-1950s, most commercial
airliners flew between 10,000 feet and 20,000 feet. Consequently, once
the U-2 started test flights, commercial pilots and air traffic
controllers began reporting a large increase in UFO sightings.
The early U-2s were silver (they were later painted black) and
reflected the rays from the sun, especially at sunrise and sunset. They
often appeared as fiery objects to observers below. Air Force BLUE BOOK
investigators aware of the secret U-2 flights tried to explain away such
sightings by linking them to natural phenomena such as ice crystals and
temperature inversions. By checking with the Agency's U-2 Project Staff
in Washington, BLUE BOOK investigators were able to attribute many UFO
sightings to U-2 flights. They were careful, however, not to reveal the
true cause of the sighting to the public.
According to later estimates from CIA officials who worked on the U-2
project and the OXCART (SR-71, or Blackbird) project, over half of all
UFO reports from the late 1950s through the 1960s were accounted for by
manned reconnaissance flights (namely the U-2) over the United States.
(45) This led the Air Force to make misleading and deceptive
statements to the public in order to allay public fears and to protect
an extraordinarily sensitive national security project. While perhaps
justified, this deception added fuel to the later conspiracy theories
and the coverup controversy of the 1970s. The percentage of what the Air
Force considered unexplained UFO sightings fell to 5.9 percent in 1955
and to 4 percent in 1956.
At the same time, pressure was building for the release of the
Robertson panel report on UFOs. In 1956, Edward Ruppelt, former head of
the Air Force BLUE BOOK project, publicly revealed the existence of the
panel. A best-selling book by UFOlogist Donald Keyhoe, a retired Marine
Corps major, advocated release of all government information relating to
UFOs. Civilian UFO groups such as the National Investigations Committee
on Aerial Phenomena (NICAP) and the Aerial Phenomena Research
Organization (APRO) immediately pushed for release of the Robertson
(47) Under pressure, the Air Force approached CIA for permission
to declassify and release the report. Despite such pressure, Philip
Strong, Deputy Assistant Director of OSI, refused to declassify the
report and declined to disclose CIA sponsorship of the panel. As an
alternative, the Agency prepared a sanitized version of the report which
deleted any reference to CIA and avoided mention of any psychological
warfare potential in the UFO controversy.
The demands, however, for more government information about UFOs did
not let up. On 8 March 1958, Keyhoe, in an interview with Mike Wallace
of CBS, claimed deep CIA involvement with UFOs and Agency sponsorship of
the Robertson panel. This prompted a series of letters to the Agency
from Keyhoe and Dr. Leon Davidson, a chemical engineer and UFOlogist.
They demanded the release of the full Robertson panel report and
confirmation of CIA involvement in the UFO issue. Davidson had convinced
himself that the Agency, not the Air Force, carried most of the
responsibility for UFO analysis and that "the activities of the US
Government are responsible for the flying saucer sightings of the last
decade." Indeed, because of the undisclosed U-2 and OXCART flights,
Davidson was closer to the truth than he suspected. CI, nevertheless
held firm to its policy of not revealing its role in UFO investigations
and refused to declassify the full Robertson panel report.
In a meeting with Air Force representatives to discuss how to handle
future inquires such as Keyhoe's and Davidson's, Agency officials
confirmed their opposition to the declassification of the full report
and worried that Keyhoe had the ear of former DCI VAdm. Roscoe
Hillenkoetter, who served on the board of governors of NICAP. They
debated whether to have CIA General Counsel Lawrence R. Houston show
Hillenkoetter the report as a possible way to defuse the situation. CIA
officer Frank Chapin also hinted that Davidson might have ulterior
motives, "some of them perhaps not in the best interest of this
country," and suggested bringing in the FBI to investigate.
(50) Although the record is unclear whether the FBI ever
instituted an investigation of Davidson or Keyhoe, or whether Houston
ever saw Hillenkoetter about the Robertson report, Hillenkoetter did
resign from the NICAP in 1962.
The Agency was also involved with Davidson and Keyhoe in two rather
famous UFO cases in the 1950s, which helped contribute to a growing
sense of public distrust of CIA with regard to UFOs. One focused on what
was reported to have been a tape recording of a radio signal from a
flying saucer; the other on reported photographs of a flying saucer. The
"radio code" incident began innocently enough in 1955, when two elderly
sisters in Chicago, Mildred and Marie Maier, reported in the Journal
of Space Flight their experiences with UFOs, including the recording
of a radio program in which an unidentified code was reportedly heard.
The sisters taped the program and other ham radio operators also claimed
to have heard the "space message." OSI became interested and asked the
Scientific Contact Branch to obtain a copy of the recording.
Field officers from the Contact Division (CD), one of whom was Dewelt
Walker, made contact with the Maier sisters, who were "thrilled that the
government was interested," and set up a time to meet with them.
(53) In trying to secure the tape recording, the Agency officers
reported that they had stumbled upon a scene from Arsenic and Old
Lace. "The only thing lacking was the elderberry wine," Walker
cabled Headquarters. After reviewing the sisters' scrapbook of clippings
from their days on the stage, the officers secured a copy of the
(54) OSI analyzed the tape and found it was nothing more than
Morse code from a US radio station.
The matter rested there until UFOlogist Leon Davidson talked with the
Maier sisters in 1957. The sisters remembered they had talked with a Mr.
Walker who said he was from the US Air Force. Davidson then wrote to a
Mr. Walker, believing him to be a US Air Force Intelligence Officer from
Wright-Patterson, to ask if the tape had been analyzed at ATIC. Dewelt
Walker replied to Davidson that the tape had been forwarded to proper
authorities for evaluation, and no information was available concerning
the results. Not satisfied, and suspecting that Walker was really a CIA
officer, Davidson next wrote DCI Allen Dulles demanding to learn what
the coded message revealed and who Mr. Walker was.
(55) The Agency, wanting to keep Walker's identity as a CIA
employee secret, replied that another agency of the government had
analyzed the tape in question and that Davidson would be hearing from
the Air Force. (56)
On 5 August, the Air Force wrote Davidson saying that Walker "was and is
an Air Force Officer" and that the tape "was analyzed by another
government organization." The Air Force letter confirmed that the
recording contained only identifiable Morse code which came from a known
US-licensed radio station.
Davidson wrote Dulles again. This time he wanted to know the identity
of the Morse operator and of the agency that had conducted the analysis.
CIA and the Air Force were now in a quandary. The Agency had previously
denied that it had actually analyzed the tape. The Air Force had also
denied analyzing the tape and claimed that Walker was an Air Force
officer. CIA officers, under cover, contacted Davidson in Chicago and
promised to get the code translation and the identification of the
transmitter, if possible.
In another attempt to pacify Davidson, a CIA officer, again under cover
and wearing his Air Force uniform, contacted Davidson in New York City.
The CIA officer explained that there was no super agency involved and
that Air Force policy was not to disclose who was doing what. While
seeming to accept this argument, Davidson nevertheless pressed for
disclosure of the recording message and the source. The officer agreed
to see what he could do.
(59) After checking with Headquarters, the CIA officer phoned
Davidson to report that a thorough check had been made and, because the
signal was of known US origin, the tape and the notes made at the time
had been destroyed to conserve file space.
Incensed over what he perceived was a runaround, Davidson told the CIA
officer that "he and his agency, whichever it was, were acting like
Jimmy Hoffa and the Teamster Union in destroying records which might
indict them." (61)
Believing that any more contact with Davidson would only encourage more
speculation, the Contact Division washed its hands of the issue by
reporting to the DCI and to ATIC that it would not respond to or try to
contact Davidson again.
(62) Thus, a minor, rather bizarre incident, handled poorly by
both CIA and the Air Force, turned into a major flap that added fuel to
the growing mystery surrounding UFOs and CIA's role in their
Another minor flap a few months later added to the growing questions
surrounding the Agency's true role with regard to flying saucers. CIA's
concern over secrecy again made matters worse. In 1958, Major Keyhoe
charged that the Agency was deliberately asking eyewitnesses of UFOs not
to make their sightings public.
The incident stemmed from a November 1957 request from OSI to the CD to
obtain from Ralph C. Mayher, a photographer for KYW-TV in Cleveland,
Ohio, certain photographs he took in 1952 of an unidentified flying
object. Harry Real, a CD officer, contacted Mayher and obtained copies
of the photographs for analysis. On 12 December 1957, John Hazen,
another CD officer, returned the five photographs of the alleged UFO to
Mayher without comment. Mayher asked Hazen for the Agency's evaluation
of the photos, explaining that he was trying to organize a TV program to
brief the public on UFOs. He wanted to mention on the show that a US
intelligence organization had viewed the photographs and thought them of
interest. Although he advised Mayher not to take this approach, Hazen
stated that Mayher was a US citizen and would have to make his own
decision as to what to do.
Keyhoe later contacted Mayher, who told him his story of CIA and the
photographs. Keyhoe then asked the Agency to confirm Hazen's employment
in writing, in an effort to expose CIA's role in UFO investigations. The
Agency refused, despite the fact that CD field representatives were
normally overt and carried credentials identifying their Agency
association. DCI Dulles's aide, John S. Earman, merely sent Keyhoe a
noncommittal letter noting that, because UFOs were of primary concern to
the Department of the Air Force, the Agency had referred his letter to
the Air Force for an appropriate response. Like the response to
Davidson, the Agency reply to Keyhoe only fueled the speculation that
the Agency was deeply involved in UFO sightings. Pressure for release of
CIA information on UFOs continued to grow.
Although CIA had a declining interest in UFO cases, it continued to
monitor UFO sightings. Agency officials felt the need to keep informed
on UFOs if only to alert the DCI to the more sensational UFO reports and
The 1960s: Declining CIA Involvement and Mounting Controversy
In the early 1960s, Keyhoe, Davidson, and other UFOlogists maintained
their assault on the Agency for release of UFO information. Davidson now
claimed that CIA "was solely responsible for creating the Flying Saucer
furor as a tool for cold war psychological warfare since 1951." Despite
calls for Congressional hearings and the release of all materials
relating to UFOs, little changed.
In 1964, however, following high-level White House discussions on what
to do if an alien intelligence was discovered in space and a new
outbreak of UFO reports and sightings, DCI John McCone asked for an
updated CIA evaluation of UFOs. Responding to McCone's request, OSI
asked the CD to obtain various recent samples and reports of UFO
sightings from NICAP. With Keyhoe, one of the founders, no longer active
in the organization, CIA officers met with Richard H. Hall, the acting
director. Hall gave the officers samples from the NICAP database on the
most recent sightings. (68)
After OSI officers had reviewed the material, Donald F. Chamberlain,
OSI Assistant Director, assured McCone that little had changed since the
early 1950s. There was still no evidence that UFOs were a threat to the
security of the United States or that they were of "foreign origin."
Chamberlain told McCone that OSI still monitored UFO reports, including
the official Air Force investigation, Project BLUE BOOK.
At the same time that CIA was conducting this latest internal review of
UFOs, public pressure forced the Air Force to establish a special ad hoc
committee to review BLUE BOOK. Chaired by Dr. Brian O'Brien, a member of
the Air Force Scientific Advisory Board, the panel included Carl Sagan,
the famous astronomer from Cornell University. Its report offered
nothing new. It declared that UFOs did not threaten the national
security and that it could find "no UFO case which represented
technological or scientific advances outside of a terrestrial
framework." The committee did recommend that UFOs be studied
intensively, with a leading university acting as a coordinator for the
project, to settle the issue conclusively.
The House Armed Services Committee also held brief hearings on UFOs in
1966 that produced similar results. Secretary of the Air Force Harold
Brown assured the committee that most sightings were easily explained
and that there was no evidence that "strangers from outer space" had
been visiting Earth. He told the committee members, however, that the
Air Force would keep an open mind and continue to investigate all UFO
Following the report of its O'Brien Committee, the House hearings on
UFOs, and Dr. Robertson's disclosure on a CBS Reports program
that CIA indeed had been involved in UFO analysis, the Air Force in July
1966 again approached the Agency for declassification of the entire
Robertson panel report of 1953 and the full Durant report on the
Robertson panel deliberations and findings. The Agency again refused to
budge. Karl H. Weber, Deputy Director of OSI, wrote the Air Force that
"We are most anxious that further publicity not be given to the
information that the panel was sponsored by the CIA." Weber noted that
there was already a sanitized version available to the public.
(72) Weber's response was rather shortsighted and ill
considered. It only drew more attention to the 13-year-old Robertson
panel report and CIA's role in the investigation of UFOs. The science
editor of The Saturday Review drew nationwide attention to the
CIA's role in investigating UFOs when he published an article
criticizing the "sanitized version" of the 1953 Robertson panel report
and called for release of the entire document.
Unknown to CIA officials, Dr. James E. McDonald, a noted atmospheric
physicist from the University of Arizona, had already seen the Durant
report on the Robertson panel proceedings at Wright-Patterson on 6 June
1966. When McDonald returned to Wright-Patterson on 30 June to copy the
report, however, the Air Force refused to let him see it again, stating
that it was a CIA classified document. Emerging as a UFO authority,
McDonald publicly claimed that the CIA was behind the Air Force secrecy
policies and coverup. He demanded the release of the full Robertson
panel report and the Durant report.
Bowing to public pressure and the recommendation of its own O'Brien
Committee, the Air Force announced in August 1966 that it was seeking a
contract with a leading university to undertake a program of intensive
investigations of UFO sightings. The new program was designed to blunt
continuing charges that the US Government had concealed what it knew
about UFOs. On 7 October, the University of Colorado accepted a $325,000
contract with the Air Force for an 18-month study of flying saucers. Dr.
Edward U. Condon, a physicist at Colorado and a former Director of the
National Bureau of Standards, agreed to head the program. Pronouncing
himself an "agnostic" on the subject of UFOs, Condon observed that he
had an open mind on the question and thought that possible
extraterritorial origins were "improbable but not impossible."
(75) Brig. Gen. Edward Giller, USAF, and Dr. Thomas Ratchford
from the Air Force Research and Development Office became the Air Force
coordinators for the project.
In February 1967, Giller contacted Arthur C. Lundahl, Director of CIA's
National Photographic Interpretation Center (NPIC), and proposed an
informal liaison through which NPIC could provide the Condon Committee
with technical advice and services in examining photographs of alleged
UFOs. Lundahl and DDI R. Jack Smith approved the arrangement as a way of
"preserving a window" on the new effort. They wanted the CIA and NPIC to
maintain a low profile, however, and to take no part in writing any
conclusions for the committee. No work done for the committee by NPIC
was to be formally acknowledged.
Ratchford next requested that Condon and his committee be allowed to
visit NPIC to discuss the technical aspects of the problem and to view
the special equipment NPIC had for photoanalysis. On 20 February 1967,
Condon and four members of his committee visited NPIC. Lundahl
emphasized to the group that any NPIC work to assist the committee must
not be identified as CIA work. Moreover, work performed by NPIC would be
strictly of a technical nature. After receiving these guidelines, the
group heard a series of briefings on the services and equipment not
available elsewhere that CIA had used in its analysis of some UFO
photography furnished by Ratchford. Condon and his committee were
Condon and the same group met again in May 1967 at NPIC to hear an
analysis of UFO photographs taken at Zanesville, Ohio. The analysis
debunked that sighting. The committee was again impressed with the
technical work performed, and Condon remarked that for the first time a
scientific analysis of a UFO would stand up to investigation.
(78) The group also discussed the committee's plans to call on
US citizens for additional photographs and to issue guidelines for
taking useful UFO photographs. In addition, CIA officials agreed that
the Condon Committee could release the full Durant report with only
In April 1969, Condon and his committee released their report on UFOs.
The report concluded that little, if anything, had come from the study
of UFOs in the past 21 years and that further extensive study of UFO
sightings was unwarranted. It also recommended that the Air Force
special unit, Project BLUE BOOK, be discontinued. It did not mention CIA
participation in the Condon committee's investigation.
(79) A special panel established by the National Academy of
Sciences reviewed the Condon report and concurred with its conclusion
that "no high priority in UFO investigations is warranted by data of the
past two decades." It concluded its review by declaring, "On the basis
of present knowledge, the least likely explanation of UFOs is the
hypothesis of extraterrestrial visitations by intelligent beings."
Following the recommendations of the Condon Committee and the National
Academy of Sciences, the Secretary of the Air Force, Robert C. Seamans,
Jr., announced on 17 December 1969 the termination of BLUE BOOK.
The 1970s and 1980s: The UFO Issue Refuses To Die
The Condon report did not satisfy many UFOlogists, who considered it a
coverup for CIA activities in UFO research. Additional sightings in the
early 1970s fueled beliefs that the CIA was somehow involved in a vast
conspiracy. On 7 June 1975, William Spaulding, head of a small UFO
group, Ground Saucer Watch (GSW), wrote to CIA requesting a copy of the
Robertson panel report and all records relating to UFOs.
(81) Spaulding was convinced that the Agency was withholding
major files on UFOs. Agency officials provided Spaulding with a copy of
the Robertson panel report and of the Durant report.
On 14 July 1975, Spaulding again wrote the Agency questioning the
authenticity of the reports he had received and alleging a CIA coverup
of its UFO activities. Gene Wilson, CIA's Information and Privacy
Coordinator, replied in an attempt to satisfy Spaulding, "At no time
prior to the formation of the Robertson Panel and subsequent to the
issuance of the panel's report has CIA engaged in the study of the UFO
phenomena." The Robertson panel report, according to Wilson, was "the
summation of Agency interest and involvement in UFOs." Wilson also
inferred that there were no additional documents in CIA's possession
that related to UFOs. Wilson was ill informed.
In September 1977, Spaulding and GSW, unconvinced by Wilson's response,
filed a Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) lawsuit against the Agency
that specifically requested all UFO documents in CIA's possession.
Deluged by similar FOIA requests for Agency information on UFOs, CIA
officials agreed, after much legal maneuvering, to conduct a "reasonable
search" of CIA files for UFO materials.
(84) Despite an Agency-wide unsympathetic attitude toward the
suit, Agency officials, led by Launie Ziebell from the Office of General
Counsel, conducted a thorough search for records pertaining to UFOs.
Persistent, demanding, and even threatening at times, Ziebell and his
group scoured the Agency. They even turned up an old UFO file under a
secretary's desk. The search finally produced 355 documents totaling
approximately 900 pages. On 14 December 1978, the Agency released all
but 57 documents of about 100 pages to GSW. It withheld these 57
documents on national security grounds and to protect sources and
Although the released documents produced no smoking gun and revealed
only a low-level Agency interest in the UFO phenomena after the
Robertson panel report of 1953, the press treated the release in a
sensational manner. The New York Times, for example, claimed that
the declassified documents confirmed intensive government concern over
UFOs and that the Agency was secretly involved in the surveillance of
UFOs. (86) GSW then
sued for the release of the withheld documents, claiming that the Agency
was still holding out key information.
(87) It was much like the John F. Kennedy assassination issue.
No matter how much material the Agency released and no matter how dull
and prosaic the information, people continued to believe in a Agency
coverup and conspiracy.
DCI Stansfield Turner was so upset when he read The New York Times
article that he asked his senior officers, "Are we in UFOs?" After
reviewing the records, Don Wortman, Deputy Director for Administration,
reported to Turner that there was "no organized Agency effort to do
research in connection with UFO phenomena nor has there been an
organized effort to collect intelligence on UFOs since the 1950s."
Wortman assured Turner that the Agency records held only "sporadic
instances of correspondence dealing with the subject," including various
kinds of reports of UFO sightings. There was no Agency program to
collect actively information on UFOs, and the material released to GSW
had few deletions. (88)
Thus assured, Turner had the General Counsel press for a summary
judgment against the new lawsuit by GSW. In May 1980, the courts
dismissed the lawsuit, finding that the Agency had conducted a thorough
and adequate search in good faith.
During the late 1970s and 1980s, the Agency continued its low-key
interest in UFOs and UFO sightings. While most scientists now dismissed
flying saucers reports as a quaint part of the 1950s and 1960s, some in
the Agency and in the Intelligence Community shifted their interest to
studying parapsychology and psychic phenomena associated with UFO
sightings. CIA officials also looked at the UFO problem to determine
what UFO sightings might tell them about Soviet progress in rockets and
missiles and reviewed its counterintelligence aspects. Agency analysts
from the Life Science Division of OSI and OSWR officially devoted a
small amount of their time to issues relating to UFOs. These included
counterintelligence concerns that the Soviets and the KGB were using US
citizens and UFO groups to obtain information on sensitive US weapons
development programs (such as the Stealth aircraft), the vulnerability
of the US air-defense network to penetration by foreign missiles
mimicking UFOs, and evidence of Soviet advanced technology associated
with UFO sightings.
CIA also maintained Intelligence Community coordination with other
agencies regarding their work in parapsychology, psychic phenomena, and
"remote viewing" experiments. In general, the Agency took a conservative
scientific view of these unconventional scientific issues. There was no
formal or official UFO project within the Agency in the 1980s, and
Agency officials purposely kept files on UFOs to a minimum to avoid
creating records that might mislead the public if released.
The 1980s also produced renewed charges that the Agency was still
withholding documents relating to the 1947 Roswell incident, in which a
flying saucer supposedly crashed in New Mexico, and the surfacing of
documents which purportedly revealed the existence of a top secret US
research and development intelligence operation responsible only to the
President on UFOs in the late 1940s and early 1950s. UFOlogists had long
argued that, following a flying saucer crash in New Mexico in 1947, the
government not only recovered debris from the crashed saucer but also
four or five alien bodies. According to some UFOlogists, the government
clamped tight security around the project and has refused to divulge its
investigation results and research ever since.
(91) In September 1994, the US Air Force released a new report
on the Roswell incident that concluded that the debris found in New
Mexico in 1947 probably came from a once top secret balloon operation,
Project MOGUL, designed to monitor the atmosphere for evidence of Soviet
nuclear tests. (92)
Circa 1984, a series of documents surfaced which some UFOlogists said
proved that President Truman created a top secret committee in 1947,
Majestic-12, to secure the recovery of UFO wreckage from Roswell and any
other UFO crash sight for scientific study and to examine any alien
bodies recovered from such sites. Most if not all of these documents
have proved to be fabrications. Yet the controversy persists.
Like the JFK assassination conspiracy theories, the UFO issue probably
will not go away soon, no matter what the Agency does or says. The
belief that we are not alone in the universe is too emotionally
appealing and the distrust of our government is too pervasive to make
the issue amenable to traditional scientific studies of rational
explanation and evidence.
(1) See the 1973
Gallup Poll results printed in The New York Times, 29 November
1973, p. 45 and Philip J. Klass, UFOs: The Public Deceived (New
York: Prometheus Books, 1983), p. 3.
(2) See Klass,
UFOs, p. 3; James S. Gordon, "The UFO Experience," Atlantic
Monthly (August 1991), pp. 82-92; David Michael Jacobs, The UFO
Controversy in America (Bloomington: Indiana University Press,
1975); Howard Blum, Out There: The Government's Secret Quest for
Extraterrestrials (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1990); Timothy
Good, Above Top Secret: The Worldwide UFO Cover-Up (New York:
William Morrow, 1987); and Whitley Strieber, Communion: The True
Story (New York: Morrow, 1987).
(3) In September
1993 John Peterson, an acquaintance of Woolsey's, first approached the
DCI with a package of heavily sanitized CIA material on UFOs released to
UFOlogist Stanton T. Friedman. Peterson and Friedman wanted to know the
reasons for the redactions. Woolsey agreed to look into the matter. See
Richard J. Warshaw, Executive Assistant, note to author, 1 November
1994; Warshaw, note to John H. Wright, Information and Privacy
Coordinator, 31 January 1994; and Wright, memorandum to Executive
Secretariat, 2 March 1994. (Except where noted, all citations to CIA
records in this article are to the records collected for the 1994
Agency-wide search that are held by the Executive Assistant to the DCI).
(4) See Hector
Quintanilla, Jr., "The Investigation of UFOs," Vol. 10, No. 4,
Studies in Intelligence
(fall 1966): pp.95-110 and CIA, unsigned memorandum, "Flying Saucers," 14
August 1952. See also Good, Above Top Secret, p. 253. During
World War II, US pilots reported "foo fighters" (bright lights trailing
US aircraft). Fearing they might be Japanese or German secret weapons,
OSS investigated but could find no concrete evidence of enemy weapons
and often filed such reports in the "crackpot" category. The OSS also
investigated possible sightings of German V-1 and V-2 rockets before
their operational use during the war. See Jacobs, UFO Controversy,
p. 33. The Central Intelligence Group, the predecessor of the CIA, also
monitored reports of "ghost rockets" in Sweden in 1946. See CIG,
Intelligence Report, 9 April 1947.
(5) Jacobs, The
p. 156 and Quintanilla, "The Investigation of UFOs," p. 97.
(6) See US Air
Force, Air Material Command, "Unidentified Aerial Objects: Project SIGN,
no. F-TR 2274, IA, February 1949, Records of the US Air Force Commands,
Activities and Organizations, Record Group 341, National Archives,
(7) See US Air
Force, Projects GRUDGE and BLUEBOOK Reports 1- 12 (Washington,
DC; National Investigations Committee on Aerial Phenomena, 1968) and
Jacobs, The UFO Controversy, pp. 50-54.
(8) See Cabell,
memorandum to Commanding Generals Major Air Commands, "Reporting of
Information on Unconventional Aircraft," 8 September 1950 and Jacobs,
The UFO Controversy, p. 65.
(9) See Air Force,
Projects GRUDGE and BLUE BOOK and Jacobs, The UFO Controversy,
(10) See Edward
Tauss, memorandum for Deputy Assistant Director, SI, "Flying Saucers," 1
August 1952. See also United Kingdom, Report by the "Flying Saucer"
Working Party, "Unidentified Flying Objects," no date (approximately
(11) See Dr.
Stone, OSI, memorandum to Dr. Willard Machle, OSI, 15 March 1949 and
Ralph L. Clark, Acting Assistant Director, OSI, memorandum for DDI,
"Recent Sightings of Unexplained Objects," 29 July 1952.
memorandum to Machle. See also Clark, memorandum for DDI, 29 July 1952.
(13) See Klass,
UFOs, p. 15. For a brief review of the Washington sightings see Good,
Above Top Secret, pp. 269-271.
(14) See Ralph L.
Clark, Acting Assistant Director, OSI, memorandum to DDI Robert Amory,
Jr., 29 July 1952. OSI and OCI were in the Directorate of Intelligence.
Established in 1948, OSI served as the CIA's focal point for the
analysis of foreign scientific and technological developments. In 1980,
OSI was merged into the Office of Science and Weapons Research. The
Office of Current Intelligence (OCI), established on 15 January 1951 was
to provide all-source current intelligence to the President and the
National Security Council.
memorandum for Deputy Assistant Director, SI (Philip Strong), 1 August
(16) On 2 January
1952, DCI Walter Bedell Smith created a Deputy Directorate for
Intelligence (DDI) composed of six overt CIA organizations--OSI, OCI,
Office of Collection and Dissemination, Office National Estimates,
Office of Research and Reports, and the Office of Intelligence
Coordination--to produce intelligence analysis for US policymakers.
(17) See Minutes
of Branch Chief's Meeting, 11 August 1952.
expressed his opinions at a meeting in the DCI Conference Room attended
by his top officers. See Deputy Chief, Requirements Staff, FI,
memorandum for Deputy Director, Plans, "Flying Saucers," 20 August 1952,
Directorate of Operations Records, Information Management Staff, Job
86-00538R, Box 1.
(19) See CIA
memorandum, unsigned, "Flying Saucers," 11 August 1952.
(20) See CIA,
memorandum, unsigned, "Flying Saucers," 14 August 1952.
(21) See CIA,
memorandum, unsigned, "Flying Saucers," 19 August 1952.
(22) See Chadwell,
memorandum for Smith, 17 September 1952 and 24 September 1952, "Flying
Saucers." See also Chadwell, memorandum for DCI Smith, 2 October 1952
and Klass, UFOs, pp. 23-26.
memorandum for DCI with attachments, 2 December 1952. See also Klass,
UFOs, pp. 26-27 and Chadwell, memorandum, 25 November 1952.
(24) See Chadwell,
memorandum, 25 November 1952 and Chadwell, memorandum, "Approval in
Principle - External Research Project Concerned with Unidentified Flying
Objects," no date. See also Philip G. Strong, OSI, memorandum for the
record, "Meeting with Dr. Julius A. Stratton, Executive Vice President
and Provost, MIT and Dr. Max Millikan, Director of CENIS." Strong
believed that in order to undertake such a review they would need the
full backing and support of DCI Smith.
(25) See Chadwell,
memorandum for DCI, ""Unidentified Flying Objects," 2 December 1952. See
also Chadwell, memorandum for Amory, DDI, "Approval in Principle -
External Research Project Concerned with Unidentified Flying Objects,"
(26) The IAC was
created in 1947 to serve as a coordinating body in establishing
intelligence requirements. Chaired by the DCI, the IAC included
representatives from the Department of State, the Army, the Air Force,
the Joint Chiefs of Staff, the FBI, and the AEC.
(27) See Klass,
UFOs, p. 27.
(28) See Richard
D. Drain, Acting Secretary, IAC, "Minutes of Meeting held in Director's
Conference Room, Administration Building, CIA," 4 December 1952.
(29) See Chadwell,
memorandum for the record, "British Activity in the Field of UFOs," 18
(30) See Chadwell,
memorandum for DCI, "Consultants for Advisory Panel on Unidentified
Flying Objects," 9 January 1953; Curtis Peebles, Watch the Skies! A
Chronicle of the Flying Saucer Myth
(Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1994). pp. 73-90; and
Jacobs, The UFO Controversy, pp. 91-92.
(31) See Fred C.
Durant III, Report on the Robertson Panel Meeting, January 1953. Durant,
on contract with OSI and a past president of the American Rocket
Society, attended the Robertson panel meetings and wrote a summary of
(32) See Report of
the Scientific Panel on Unidentified Flying Objects (the Robertson
Report), 17 January 1953 and the Durant report on the panel discussions.
(33) See Robertson
Report and Durant Report. See also Good, Above Top Secret, pp.
337-38, Jacobs, The UFO Controversy, p. 95, and Klass, UFO's,
(34) See Reber,
memorandum to IAC, 18 February 1953.
(35) See Chadwell,
memorandum for DDI, "Unidentified Flying Objects," 10 February 1953;
Chadwell, letter to Robertson, 28 January 1953; and Reber, memorandum
for IAC, "Unidentified Flying Objects," 18 February 1953. On briefing
the ONE, see Durant, memorandum for the record, "Briefing of ONE Board
on Unidentified Flying Objects," 30 January 1953 and CIA Summary
disseminated to the field, "Unidentified Flying Objects," 6 February
(36) See Chadwell,
letter to Julius A. Stratton, Provost MIT, 27 January 1953.
(37) See Chadwell,
memorandum for Chief, Physics and Electronics Division/OSI (Todos M.
Odarenko), "Unidentified Flying Objects," 27 May 1953.
(38) See Odarenko,
memorandum to Chadwell, "Unidentified Flying Objects," 3 July 1953. See
also Odarenko, memorandum to Chadwell, "Current Status of Unidentified
Flying Objects (UFOB) Project," 17 December 1953.
(39) See Odarenko,
memorandum, "Unidentified Flying Objects," 8 August 1955.
(40) See FBIS,
report, "Military Unconventional Aircraft," 18 August 1953 and various
reports, "Military-Air, Unconventional Aircraft," 1953, 1954, 1955.
(41) Developed by
the Canadian affiliate of Britain's A. V. Roe, Ltd., Project Y did
produce a small-scale model that hovered a few feet off the ground. See
Odarenko, memorandum to Chadwell, "Flying Saucer Type of Planes" 25 May
1954; Frederic C. E. Oder, memorandum to Odarenko, "USAF Project Y," 21
May 1954; and Odarenko, T. M. Nordbeck, Ops/SI, and Sidney Graybeal,
ASD/SI, memorandum for the record, "Intelligence Responsibilities for
Non-Conventional Types of Air Vehicles," 14 June 1954.
(42) See Reuben
Efron, memorandum, "Observation of Flying Object Near Baku," 13 October
1955; Scoville, memorandum for the record, "Interview with Senator
Richard B. Russell," 27 October 1955; and Wilton E. Lexow, memorandum
for information, "Reported Sighting of Unconventional Aircraft," 19
(43) See Lexow,
memorandum for information, "Reported Sighting of Unconventional
Aircraft," 19 October 1955. See also Frank C. Bolser, memorandum for
George C. Miller, Deputy Chief, SAD/SI, "Possible Soviet Flying Saucers,
Check On;" Lexow, memorandum, "Possible Soviet Flying Saucers, Follow Up
On," 17 December 1954; Lexow, memorandum, "Possible Soviet Flying
Saucers," 1 December 1954; and A. H. Sullivan, Jr., memorandum,
"Possible Soviet Flying Saucers," 24 November 1954.
(44) See Gregory
W. Pedlow and Donald E. Welzenbach, The Central Intelligence Agency
and Overhead Reconnaissance: The U-2 and OXCART Programs, 1954-1974
(Washington, DC: CIA History Staff, 1992), pp. 72-73.
(45) See Pedlow
and Welzenbach, Overhead Reconnaissance, pp. 72-73. This also was
confirmed in a telephone interview between the author and John
Parongosky, 26 July 1994. Parongosky oversaw the day-to-day affairs of
the OXCART program.
(46) See Jacobs,
The UFO Controversy, p. 135.
(47) See Peebles,
Watch the Skies, pp. 128-146; Ruppelt, The Report on Unidentified
Flying Objects (New York: Doubleday, 1956); Keyhoe, The Flying
Saucer Conspiracy (New York: Holt, 1955); and Jacobs, The UFO
Controversy, pp. 347-49.
(48) See Strong,
letter to Lloyd W. Berkner; Strong, letter to Thorton Page; Strong,
letter to Robertson; Strong, letter to Samuel Goudsmit; Strong, letter
to Luis Alvarez, 20 December 1957; and Strong, memorandum for Major
James F. Byrne, Assistant Chief of Staff, Intelligence Department of the
Air Force, "Declassification of the `Report of the Scientific Panel on
Unidentified Flying Objects,'" 20 December 1957. See also Berkner,
letter to Strong, 20 November 1957 and Page, letter to Strong, 4
December 1957. The panel members were also reluctant to have their
association with the Agency released.
(49) See Wilton E.
Lexow, memorandum for the record, "Comments on Letters Dealing with
Unidentified Flying Objects," 4 April 1958; J. S. Earman, letter to
Major Lawrence J. Tacker, Office of the Secretary of the Air Force,
Information Service, 4 April 1958; Davidson, letter to Berkner, 8 April
1958; Berkner, letter to Davidson, 18 April 1958; Berkner, letter to
Strong, 21 April 1958; Davidson, letter to Tacker, 27 April 1958;
Davidson, letter to Allen Dulles, 27 April 1958; Ruppelt, letter to
Davidson, 7 May 1958; Strong, letter to Berkner, 8 May 1958; Davidson,
letter to Berkner, 8 May 1958; Davidson, letter to Earman, 16 May 1958;
Davidson, letter to Goudsmit, 18 May 1958; Davidson, letter to Page, 18
May 1958; and Tacker, letter to Davidson, 20 May 1958.
(50) See Lexow,
memorandum for Chapin, 28 July 1958.
(51) See Good,
Above Top Secret, pp. 346-47; Lexow, memorandum for the record,
"Meeting with the Air Force Personnel Concerning Scientific Advisory
Panel Report on Unidentified Flying Objects, dated 17 January 1953 (S),"
16 May 1958. See also La Rae L. Teel, Deputy Division Chief, ASD,
memorandum for the record, "Meeting with Mr. Chapin on Replying to Leon
Davidson's UFO Letter and Subsequent Telephone Conversation with Major
Thacker, [sic]" 22 May 1958.
(52) See Edwin M.
Ashcraft, Chief, Contact Division (Scientific), memorandum to Chief,
Chicago Office, "Radio Code Recording," 4 March 1955 and Ashcraft,
memorandum to Chief, Support Branch, OSI, 17 March 1955.
(53) The Contact
Division was created to collect foreign intelligence information from
sources within the United States. See the Directorate of Intelligence
Historical Series, The Origin and Development of Contact Division, 11
July 19461 July 1965 (Washington, DC; CIA Historical Staff, June
(54) See George O.
Forrest, Chief, Chicago Office, memorandum to Chief, Contact Division
for Science, 11 March 1955.
(55) See Support
Division (Connell), memorandum to Dewelt E. Walker, 25 April 1957.
(56) See J. Arnold
Shaw, Assistant to the Director, letter to Davidson, 10 May 1957.
(57) See Support
(Connell) memorandum to Lt. Col. V. Skakich, 27 August 1957 and
Lamountain, memorandum to Support (Connell), 20 December 1957.
Lamountain, cable to Support (Connell), 31 July 1958.
(59) See Support
(Connell) cable to Skakich, 3 October 1957 and Skakich, cable to
Connell, 9 October 1957.
(60) See Skakich,
cable to Connell, 9 October 1957.
(61) See R. P. B.
Lohmann, memorandum for Chief, Contact Division, DO, 9 January 1958.
(62) See Support,
cable to Skakich, 20 February 1958 and Connell (Support) cable to
Lamountain, 19 December 1957.
(63) See Edwin M.
Ashcraft, Chief, Contact Division, Office of Operations, memorandum for
Austin Bricker, Jr., Assistant to the Director, "Inquiry by Major Donald
E. Keyhoe on John Hazen's Association with the Agency," 22 January 1959.
(64) See John T.
Hazen, memorandum to Chief, Contact Division, 12 December 1957. See also
Ashcraft, memorandum to Cleveland Resident Agent, "Ralph E. Mayher," 20
December 1957. According to this memorandum, the photographs were viewed
at "a high level and returned to us without comment." The Air Force held
the original negatives. The CIA records were probably destroyed.
(65) The issue
would resurface in the 1970s with the GSW FOIA court case.
(66) See Robert
Amory, Jr., DDI, memorandum for Assistant Director/Scientific
Intelligence, "Flying Saucers," 26 March 1956. See also Wallace R.
Lamphire, Office of the Director, Planning and Coordination Staff,
memorandum for Richard M. Bissell, Jr., "Unidentified Flying Saucers
(UFO)," 11 June 1957; Philip Strong, memorandum for the Director, NPIC,
"Reported Photography of Unidentified Flying Objects," 27 October 1958;
Scoville, memorandum to Lawrence Houston, Legislative Counsel, "Reply to
Honorable Joseph E. Garth," 12 July 1961; and Houston, letter to Garth,
13 July 1961.
(67) See, for
example, Davidson, letter to Congressman Joseph Garth, 26 June 1961 and
Carl Vinson, Chairman, House Committee on Armed Services, letter to Rep.
Robert A. Everett, 2 September 1964.
(68) See Maxwell
W. Hunter, staff member, National Aeronautics and Space Council,
Executive Office of the President, memorandum for Robert F. Parkard,
Office of International Scientific Affairs, Department of State,
"Thoughts on the Space Alien Race Question," 18 July 1963, File SP 16,
Records of the Department of State, Record Group 59, National Archives.
See also F. J. Sheridan, Chief, Washington Office, memorandum to Chief,
Contact Division, "National Investigation Committee on Aerial Phenomena
(NICAP)," 25 January 1965.
memorandum for DCI, "Evaluation of UFOs," 26 January 1965.
(70) See Jacobs,
The UFO Controversy, p. 199 and US Air Force, Scientific Advisory
Board, Ad Hoc Committee (O'Brien Committee) to Review Project BLUE BOOK,
Special Report (Washington, DC: 1966). See also The New York
Times, 14 August 1966, p. 70.
(71) See "Congress
Reassured on Space Visits," The New York Times, 6 April 1966.
(72) Weber, letter
to Col. Gerald E. Jorgensen, Chief, Community Relations Division, Office
of Information, US Air Force, 15 August 1966. The Durant report was a
detailed summary of the Robertson panel proceedings.
(73) See John
Lear, "The Disputed CIA Document on UFOs," Saturday Review
(September 3, 1966), p. 45. The Lear article was otherwise unsympathetic
to UFO sightings and the possibility that extraterritorials were
involved. The Air Force had been eager to provide Lear with the full
report. See Walter L. Mackey, Executive Officer, memorandum for DCI,
"Air Force Request to Declassify CIA Material on Unidentified Flying
Objects (UFO)," 1 September 1966.
(74) See Klass,
UFOs, p. 40, Jacobs, The UFO Controversy, p. 214 and Everet
Clark, "Physicist Scores `Saucer Status,'" The New York Times, 21
October 1966. See also James E. McDonald, "Statement on Unidentified
Flying Objects," submitted to the House Committee on Science and
Astronautics, 29 July 1968.
(75) Condon is
quoted in Walter Sullivan, "3 Aides Selected in Saucer Inquiry," The
New York Times, 8 October 1966. See also "An Outspoken Scientist,
Edward Uhler Condon," The New York Times, 8 October 1966. Condon,
an outgoing, gruff scientist, had earlier become embroiled in a
controversy with the House Unamerican Activities Committee that claimed
Condon was "one of the weakest links in our atomic security." See also
Peebles, Watch the Skies, pp. 169-195.
(76) See Lundahl,
memorandum for DDI, 7 February 1967.
memorandum for the record, "Visit of Dr. Condon to NPIC, 20 February
1967," 23 February 1967. See also the analysis of the photographs in
memorandum for Lundahl, "Photo Analysis of UFO Photography," 17 February
memorandum for the record, "UFO Briefing for Dr. Edward Condon, 5 May
1967," 8 May 1967 and attached "Guidelines to UFO Photographers and UFO
Photographic Information Sheet." See also Condon Committee, Press
Release, 1 May 1967 and Klass, UFOs,
p. 41. The Zaneville photographs turned out to be a hoax.
(79) See Edward U.
Condon, Scientific Study of Unidentified Flying Objects (New York:
Bantam Books, 1969) and Klass, UFOs, p. 41. The report contained the
Durant report with only minor deletions.
(80) See Office of
Assistant Secretary of Defense, News Release, "Air Force to Terminate
Project BLUEBOOK," 17 December 1969. The Air Force retired BLUEBOOK
records to the USAF Archives at Maxwell Air Force Base in Alabama. In
1976 the Air Force turned over all BLUEBOOK files to the National
Archives and Records Administration, which made them available to the
public without major restrictions. Some names have been withheld from
the documents. See Klass, UFOs,
(81) GSW was a
small group of UFO buffs based in Phoenix, Arizona, and headed by
William H. Spaulding.
(82) See Klass,
UFOs, p. 8.
(83) See Wilson,
letter to Spaulding, 26 March 1976 and GSW v. CIA Civil Action Case
(84) GSW v. CIA
Civil Action Case 78-859, p. 2.
interview with Launie Ziebell, 23 June 1994 and author interview with
OSI analyst, 21 July 1994. See also affidavits of George Owens, CIA
Information and Privacy Act Coordinator; Karl H. Weber, OSI; Sidney D.
Stembridge, Office of Security; and Rutledge P. Hazzard, DS&T; GSW v.
CIA Civil Action Case 78-859 and Sayre Stevens, Deputy Director for
National Foreign Assessment, memorandum for Thomas H. White, Assistant
for Information, Information Review Committee, "FOIA Litigation Ground
Saucer Watch," no date.
(86) See "CIA
Papers Detail UFO Surveillance," The New York Times, 13 January
1979; Patrick Huyghe, "UFO Files: The Untold Story," The New York
Times Magazine, 14 October 1979, p. 106; and Jerome Clark, "UFO
Update," UFO Report, August 1979.
(87) Jerome Clark,
"Latest UFO News Briefs From Around the World," UFO Update,
August 1979 and GSW v. CIA Civil Action No. 78-859.
(88) See Wortman,
memorandum for DCI Turner, "Your Question, `Are we in UFOs?' Annotated
to The New York Times
News Release Article," 18 January 1979.
(89) See GSW v.
CIA Civil Action 78-859. See also Klass, UFOs, pp. 10-12.
(90) See John
Brennan, memorandum for Richard Warshaw, Executive Assistant, DCI,
"Requested Information on UFOs," 30 September 1993; Author interviews
with OSWR analyst, 14 June 1994 and OSI analyst, 21 July 1994. This
author found almost no documentation on Agency involvement with UFOs in
There is a DIA Psychic Center and the NSA studies parapsychology, that
branch of psychology that deals with the investigation of such psychic
phenomena as clairvoyance, extrasensory perception, and telepathy. The
CIA reportedly is also a member of an Incident Response Team to
investigate UFO landings, if one should occur. This team has never met.
The lack of solid CIA documentation on Agency UFO-related activities in
the 1980s leaves the entire issue somewhat murky for this period.
Much of the UFO literature presently focuses on contactees and
abductees. See John E. Mack, Abduction, Human Encounters with Aliens
(New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1994) and Howard Blum, Out There
(New York: Simon and Schuster, 1990).
(91) See Charles
Berlitz and William L. Moore, The Roswell Incident (New York:
Berkeley Books, 1988); Moore, "The Roswell Incident: New Evidence in the
Search for a Crashed UFO," (Burbank, California: Fair Witness Project,
1982), Publication Number 1201; and Klass, UFOs,
pp. 280-281. In 1994 Congressman Steven H. Schiff (R-NM) called for an
official study of the Roswell incident. The GAO is conducting a separate
investigation of the incident. The CIA is not involved in the
investigation. See Klass, UFOs, pp. 279-281; John H. Wright,
Information and Privacy Coordinator, letter to Derek Skreen, 20
September 1993; and OSWR analyst interview. See also the made-for-TV
film, Roswell, which appeared on cable TV on 31 July 1994 and
Peebles, Watch the Skies, pp. 245-251.
(92) See John
Diamond, "Air Force Probes 1947 UFO Claim Findings Are Down to Earth," 9
September 1994, Associated Press release; William J. Broad, "Wreckage of
a `Spaceship': Of This Earth (and U.S.)," The New York Times, 18
September 1994, p. 1; and USAF Col. Richard L. Weaver and 1st Lt. James
McAndrew, The Roswell Report, Fact Versus Fiction in New Mexico
Desert (Washington, DC: GPO, 1995).
(93) See Good,
Above Top Secret; Moore and S. T. Friedman, "Philip Klass and MJ-12:
What are the Facts," (Burbank California: Fair-Witness Project, 1988),
Publication Number 1290; Klass, "New Evidence of MJ-12 Hoax,"
Skeptical Inquirer, vol. 14 (Winter 1990); and Moore and Jaime H.
Shandera, The MJ-12 Documents: An Analytical Report
(Burbank, California: Fair-Witness Project, 1990), Publication Number
1500. Walter Bedell Smith supposedly replaced Forrestal on 1 August 1950
following Forrestal's death. All members listed were deceased when the
MJ-12 "documents" surfaced in 1984. See Peebles, Watch the Skies,
Dr. Larry Bland, editor of The George C. Marshall Papers,
discovered that one of the so-called Majestic-12 documents was a
complete fraud. It contained the exact same language as a letter from
Marshall to Presidential candidate Thomas Dewey regarding the "Magic"
intercepts in 1944. The dates and names had been altered and "Magic"
changed to "Majic." Moreover, it was a photocopy, not an original. No
original MJ-12 documents have ever surfaced. Telephone conversation
between the author and Bland, 29 August 1994.